Electric and hybrid cars a history pdf

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electric and hybrid cars a history pdf

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Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Power Sources, Models, Sustainability, Infrastructure and the Market reviews the performance, cost, safety, and sustainability of battery systems for hybrid electric vehicles HEVs and electric vehicles EVs , including nickel-metal hydride batteries and Li-ion batteries. Throughout this book, especially in the first chapters, alternative vehicles with different power trains are compared in terms of lifetime cost, fuel consumption, and environmental impact. The emissions of greenhouse gases are particularly dealt with. The improvement of the battery, or fuel cell, performance and governmental incentives will play a fundamental role in determining how far and how substantial alternative vehicles will penetrate into the market. An adequate recharging infrastructure is of paramount importance for the diffusion of vehicles powered by batteries and fuel cells, as it may contribute to overcome the so-called range anxiety. The final chapter reviews the state of the art of the current models of hybrid and electric vehicles along with the powertrain solutions adopted by the major automakers. An invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts working in research institutions, universities and industries worldwide.
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Top 10 Upcoming Plug-in Hybrid Cars Bringing More Electric Range in 2020

The demand for electric drive vehicles will continue to climb as prices drop. Electric vehicles are of the following types: 1 Hybrid electric.

What is the history of electric cars?

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Karan C Prajapati.

An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors , using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. The first practical electric cars were produced in the s. From , a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, illnesses and deaths due to air pollution , [3] and the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations , these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas. Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle EV. The term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" generally refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity.

Cars Work? Copyright by Infobase Publishing All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. How do hybrid cars work? Science in the real world Includes bibliographical references and index.

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In the late s and early s, the electric car manufacturing industry was relatively robust and successful. In , for instance, out of the total of 2, automobiles found in New York, Chicago and Boston, of those cars were fully electric. Surprisingly, only cars were powered by gasoline and the remaining 1, were steam-powered automobiles -- popular because at the time steam technology was familiar and proven [source: Sulzberger ]. After just a few decades of improvement, electric cars around this time were clean, quiet and relatively efficient. Most resembled horse-drawn carriages, since that's what most automobiles looked like at the time -- a horse cart without the horse. In , there were about 12 manufacturers making electric cars in the United States, and many of the cars were used as cabs in cities where the driving distances were often shorter -- mainly due to the limited charge of the batteries.

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